List of Medical Terms and Definitions

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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm – or AAA is a bulge or swelling that occurs in the aorta, the main blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the abdomen and legs. AAA is most commonly caused by a weakening of the aortic wall, and can grow slowly over time without symptoms. However, if the aneurysm ruptures, it can cause life-threatening bleeding. Treatment options include surgery or endovascular repair, and regular monitoring is recommended for individuals at risk.

Acanthosis Nigricans – a skin condition causing dark, thick, velvety patches in body folds and creases. It is often a sign of an underlying condition, but may also be caused by certain medications, and rarely by cancer or a mutated gene.

Achalasia – a condition in which the lower esophageal sphincter, a muscle in the lower part of the esophagus, does not relax properly. The patient finds it difficult to swallow either solids or both solids and liquids.

Acne – a common skin condition that occurs when hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells, resulting in the formation of pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads on the face, neck, chest, and back. It is most commonly associated with puberty and adolescence but can affect people of all ages. Treatment options include over-the-counter creams and cleansers, prescription medications, and lifestyle changes such as diet and stress management.

Acromegaly – a condition in which a person produces too much growth hormone, caused by an overactive pituitary gland. The person’s bones and body tissues grow more quickly than normal, making them very tall, with large hands and feet.

Acoustic Neuroma – or Vestibular Schwannoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops slowly on the vestibulocochlear nerve in the inner ear. It is not life-threatening, but doctors recommend monitoring it periodically in case it grows.

Acupuncture – a treatment technique using very thin needles. It is derived from ancient Chinese medicine. It has become popular in Western societies and is used by many GPs in the UK.

ADHD – or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopment disorder that affects the person’s ability to concentrate (pay attention), control their impulses, and stay still. Today, there are medications and other treatment options that can help.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) – see Macular Degeneration.

Agoraphobia – an irrational fear of being in places or situations where escape might be hard or that help would not come if things went wrong. It is a type of anxiety disorder. Fortunately, there is treatment.

Airplane Ear – also known as Barotrauma or Ear Barotrauma, refers to discomfort or pain in the ear(s) when an airplane is ascending or descending. This occurs because of a change in air pressure between the outside and inside of the ear. It is common to hear one or two babies crying when an airplane is gaining or losing altitude.

Albinism – an inherited disorder characterized by either very little melanin production or none at all. People who live with albinism have very pale skin, hair, and eyes. Their skin is very sensitive to sunlight.

Alcohol Poisoning – or alcohol overdose is more than just being drunk. It is a serious and potentially deadly consequence of consuming too much alcohol, too fast, too quickly. If you have alcohol poisoning, you need emergency medical treatment.

Allergy – when the body reacts strongly to something harmless, like pollen or pet hair. It happens because your immune system thinks the substance is dangerous and tries to fight it off, causing symptoms like sneezing, itching, or rashes.

Altitude Sickness – or Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) can develop if you gain altitude too fast. If you are climbing a mountain and have altitude sickness symptoms, you must descend as soon as possible. Untreated and ignored, the condition can become dangerous.

Alzheimer’s Disease – or AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder marked by memory loss, cognitive decline, and changes in behavior and personality.

Anemia – a condition characterized by a deficiency in red blood cells or hemoglobin, leading to reduced oxygen-carrying capacity.

Ankle Fracture – see Broken Ankle.

Anton’s Syndrome – also known as Anton-Babinski Syndrome, is a neuropsychological disorder in which a person cannot see but insists that they can, even though all evidence compellingly shows that they are blind. It is also known as Visual Anosognosia (a condition of being in denial of one’s own visual impairment).

Anxiety – a mental health condition that is characterized by feelings of apprehension, fear, and worry. It is common all over the world. There are many types of anxiety disorders.

Appendicitis – inflammation and infection of the appendix. It is a serious and painful condition that needs immediate treatment. Untreated appendicitis can lead to death.

Arthritis – inflammation of one or more of the joints, such as the knee, ankle, knuckle, wrist, and elbow. The inflammation can cause pain, stiffness, and swelling. There are hundreds of types.

Arthroscopy – a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to examine, diagnose, and treat disorders in joints using a small camera-equipped instrument called an arthroscope. It offers several advantages over traditional surgery, including more accurate and precise diagnoses and faster recover times for patients.

Asthma – a chronic (long-term) respiratory condition in which the patient’s airways become inflamed and narrow. Asthma patients have problems breathing properly during an attack or exacerbation.

Astigmatism – sometimes referred to as Refractive Error, is a common condition where the eye does not bend (refract) light correctly, causing blurred or distorted vision.

Athlete’s Foot – or Tinea Pedis is a fungal infection that affects the skin of our feet. It can also spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. It is more commonly seen in people who use sports locker/changing rooms frequently, hence its name.

Atrial fibrillation – or AFib is a heart condition that causes the heart to beat irregularly and often abnormally fast. It occurs when the two top chambers of the heart (atria) do not beat in synch with the two bottom chambers (ventricles).

Autism Spectrum Disorder – or ASD is a neurodevelopment disorder that affects how a person socializes, communicates, interprets speech and body language, and behaves. It is a wide-spectrum disorder, i.e., it affects people in different ways and to different degrees.


Bad Breath – or Halitosis, as the name suggests, refers to an unpleasant smell that comes from your mouth when you exhale. There are many possible causes.

Back Pain – or backache, refers to discomfort and/or pain in the lower, middle, or upper back. It is a very common complaint and the main cause of absenteeism from work. There are two main types: acute and chronic.

Bacteria – single-celled microorganisms that may be good or bad for human health, other animals, plants, and the environment. There are many different types.

Bacterial Vaginosis – or BV is a common vaginal infection caused by an imbalance of bacteria in the vagina, which can lead to an overgrowth of harmful bacteria. Symptoms may include vaginal discharge, odor, and itching, but some individuals may not experience any symptoms. BV is typically treated with antibiotics, but recurrence is common. Maintaining good vaginal hygiene and avoiding certain behaviors such as douching may help prevent BV.

Baker’s Cyst – or Popliteal Cyst is a sac full of synovial fluid that develops behind the knee. It can be uncomfortable, with a sensation of tightness, and even painful, especially after exercise or standing for a long time. It is treatable.

Bedbugs – known scientifically as Cimex lectularius, are very small, wingless insects that feed on the blood of humans and other warm-blooded animals. They mainly feed at night.

Bipolar Disorder – also known as Manic Depression and Manic-Depressive Illness, is a mental illness marked by extreme mood swings from mania to depression.

Bird Flu – or avian flu is a viral infection that affects birds. Millions of farm animals (poultry) have had to be destroyed because of bird flu outbreaks across the world. Some virus strains can jump from birds to pigs, humans, and other animals.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder – also known as BDD or Body Dysmorphia is an obsessive preoccupation with perceived or insignificant physical flaws, which can lead to emotional distress and excessive attempts to fix or hide them.

Borderline Personality Disorder – or BPD is a mental health condition in which the patient finds it hard to regulate their emotions, maintain stable relationships, and control their impulses. Three-quarters of people with BPD are female.

Bowen’s Disease – also known as squamous cell carcinoma in situ, is a type of skin cancer that affects the outermost layer of the skin. It is non-invasive, i.e., it doesn’t spread to other parts of the body. However, if left untreated, it can develop into a serious and deadly cancer.

Broken Ankle – also called an Ankle Fracture, occurs if you break/fracture any of the bones in your ankle joint.

Broken Hand – or Fractured Hand is a hand with a broken bone. There are many bones in the human hand; 27, in fact, including the wrist.

Bronchitis – an inflammation of the bronchial tubes in the lungs, leading to coughing, mucus production, and potential breathing difficulties.

Bulimia – or bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder in which the person binge eats and then throws up (vomits, purges) deliberately. They may also misuse or abuse laxatives, diuretics, and some other medications.


Cancer – a disease in which abnormal cells start dividing and multiplying uncontrollably. Cancer cells invade and destroy healthy tissue. In many cases, the disease is fatal.

Cardiomyopathy – if your heart has difficulty pumping blood effectively, you have cardiomyopathy. There are three main types. This is a serious heart condition.

Cardiovascular Disease – or CVD refers to a disease that affects either the heart, blood vessels, or both. Arteries and veins are blood vessels.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome – pain, numbness, tingling, or a sensation of burning in the hand and wrist. It occurs when the median nerve is compressed. It is usually caused by repetitive movements. It can take a long time to get better, even with treatment.

Cataracts – a condition that affects the lens of the eye. It becomes clouded, resulting in a cataract. The term ‘cataract’ is not a physical object, but rather a description of the clouding that occurs in the lens of the eye. Treatment, which involves surgery, is straightforward.

Cerebral Palsy – or CP is a group of disorders that affects a person’s neurological system and motor ability (ability to move). It is not a progressive condition – it doesn’t worsen over time.

Celiac Disease – an autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine, impairing nutrient absorption and causing symptoms like digestive issues, fatigue, and skin rashes. Avoiding gluten is the primary treatment.

Cell – one of the building blocks of life. Every living organism is made of cells. They are the smallest components of organisms that have the ability to replicate on their own.

Chickenpox – also known as varicella, is a viral infection that causes red or pink bumps on the skin, which turn into fluid-filled blisters that burst and become scabs. It is more common in children than adults.

Chlamydia – a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is spread through sexual contact. Patients become infect with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is easily treatable with antibiotics.

Chronic Kidney Disease – a.k.a. CKD or Chronic Renal Disease, is a long-term condition in which the kidneys do not function properly. CKD affects millions of people globally and is more common among seniors than young adults.

Cirrhosis – a late-stage liver condition characterized by fibrosis and scarring of liver tissue. It often results from chronic liver diseases like hepatitis, alcohol abuse, or fatty liver disease. The scarring interferes with the liver’s ability to function, affecting processes like detoxification, nutrient absorption, and blood clotting.

Cluster Headaches – sometimes referred to as Suicide Headaches, are intensely painful, recurring headaches that often occur in cyclical patterns or clusters.

Color Blindness – or Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) is a condition causing difficulty distinguishing certain colors, commonly between red and green, or occasionally blue and yellow. Most cases are inherited. It is much more common among males than females.

Common Cold – a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, i.e., the throat and nose. Although not nice, it is less unpleasant and less serious than flu. Children catch cold much more frequently than adults.

Control Group – a group of participants (in a clinical trial) who do not receive the experimental treatment or intervention being studied, serving as a basis for comparison. It is compared to the Intervention Group.

COVID-19 – which is short for Coronavirus Disease 2019, is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a coronavirus family member. It was responsible for a recent global pandemic that killed at least six million people (probably many more).

Crohn’s Disease – a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the lining of the digestive tract, leading to abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition.

Cystic Fibrosis – a life-threatening genetic disorder that primarily affects the respiratory and digestive systems. It causes thick and sticky mucus to accumulate in organs, leading to chronic lung infections, malabsorption of nutrients, and various other complications.

Cystitis – an inflammation of the bladder, often caused by a bacterial infection. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning sensations during urination, and lower abdominal pain. Other causes can be irritants, catheter use, or certain medical treatments.


Dandruff – a scalp condition in which flaky dead skin builds up on the scalp, and hair, and becomes visible on the person’s shoulders. Although it is not dangerous or bad for our health, we don’t like it because it doesn’t look nice.

Dehydration – if you lack water, you are suffering from dehydration. The verb is to dehydrate. The opposite of dehydration is rehydration. Dehydration may be caused by not drinking enough fluids or the rapid loss of fluids (from diarrhea, vomiting, or sweating).

Dementia – a general term for a decline in cognitive ability severe enough to interfere with daily life, affecting memory, thinking, and communication.

Dengue Fever – a mosquito-borne illness with flu-like signs and symptoms. Complications can be serious. The mosquito exists in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. The number of cases worldwide is growing every year.

Dental Cavities – also known as Caries and Tooth Decay damaged (rotted) areas in the surface of the tooth.

Depression – a fairly common and serious mental condition/illness that can really mess with how you feel, think, and behave. But the good news is that it’s treatable.

Dermatitis – a skin condition characterized by inflammation, itching, and redness. It can arise from various causes, including allergens, irritants, or genetic factors, and manifests in several forms like atopic, contact, or seborrheic dermatitis.

Diabetes – a chronic condition in which the patient’s body either produces no insulin or cannot use it properly. The number of people with diabetes worldwide has been growing over the past few decades.

Diphtheria – an infectious and potentially dangerous disease caused by the Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacterium. There are two types, respiratory diphtheria or cutaneous diphtheria – the latter affects the skin. Thanks to widespread immunization, it is a rare disease today.

Diverticulitis – a condition where small pouches or diverticula become infected or inflamed. The condition is treatable with medications and a change in diet. Sometimes, surgery is needed.

Down Syndrome – also spelled Down’s Syndrome is a genetic disorder that leads to developmental and cognitive impairments. Trisomy 21 is the most common type. People with Down syndrome have an extra chromosome 21 – three of them instead of just a pair – so they have 47 chromosomes in total, instead of the usual 46.

Dry Eye – a.k.a. Dry Eye Syndrome or Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca, is a condition where the eyes don’t produce enough tears or the right quality of tears to stay adequately lubricated.

Dwarfism – a condition that affects the growth and development of a person’s bones and sometimes body organs too. People with dwarfism are much shorter than average – less than 4 feet 10 inches (147 centimeters) tall.

Dysarthria – a motor speech disorder caused by weak muscles. If you have dysarthria, you find it hard to talk clearly and people may find it difficult to understand what you are trying to say.

Dyslexia – a learning disorder that affects how the brain processes language. People with dyslexia find it harder to learn how to read, write, and spell than the rest of the population. They also have problems dealing with numbers, especially multiple numbers. Individuals with dyslexia have average or above-average IQs.


Ear Infection – also known as otitis media, is an infection of the inner ear caused by a virus or bacterium. People of all ages can get ear infections. They are more common in young children and babies.

Eating Disorders – a mental condition/illness in which the person has abnormal eating habits which impact their health and emotional well-being in a negative way. Bulimia and anorexia are two examples of eating disorders.

Ebola – this term may refer to Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) or the Ebola Virus (the virus that causes the disease). Ebola has an alarmingly high death rate.

Ectropion – a condition in which the lower eyelid droops and folds outward, exposing its inner flesh. The condition is mainly due to aging, but there are some other possible causes.

Eczema – a condition that causes the skin to become itchy with inflamed patches and (sometimes) blisters. The severity of signs and symptoms can vary significantly. It can be a source of discomfort and self-consciousness.

Edema – the medical term used to describe the abnormal accumulation of fluid within the body’s tissues, leading to swelling.

Egg Allergy – a hypersensitive immune response to proteins found in eggs. Individuals affected may experience symptoms like hives, respiratory issues, or even anaphylaxis upon consumption or exposure to egg proteins. Always seek medical advice for symptoms.

Embolism – a blockage in a blood vessel caused by a blood clot, air bubble, fat globule, or other substance. If not treated, embolisms can become life-threatening.

Encephalitis – inflammation of the brain. It is caused by either an infection or an autoimmune response. This is a medical emergency which can lead to serious complications, and even death.

Endometriosis – a gynecological condition (women’s health) in which endometrial tissue grows where it should not, such as the fallopian tubes or bladder. It should only line the outside of the uterus.

Entropion – an eye condition in which the eyelid folds inward, with the lashes rubbing against the surface of the eye. In most cases, the problem is with the lower eyelid.

Epilepsy – a complex neurological disorder in which the patient has recurrent, unprovoked seizures due to abnormal electrical activity levels in the brain. Fortunately, it is possible to manage the condition with the right treatment.

Erythrocytosis – also known as polycythemia, when there are too many red blood cells in the blood – the opposite of anemia. Although it sounds scary, there is effective treatment.

Eye Melanoma – or Ocular Melanoma, is a rare from of cancer that develops in the eyes – specifically, the cells that produce pigment. It mainly affects the middle layer of the eye (uvea), but may occur in other parts too.


Farsightedness – also known as Long-Sightedness or Hyperopia, is a common eye condition where distant objects are seen clearly, but close ones appear blurry, often due to the eye being shorter than normal.

FASDs – which stands for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, is a group of conditions that some children have because their mothers drank alcohol during pregnancy. They may suffer physical and/or mental health problems.

Fexofenadine – a non-sedating antihistamine used to relieve symptoms of allergic rhinitis such as sneezing, runny nose, itching, and watery eyes. It works by blocking histamine, a chemical in the body that causes allergic symptoms.

Fibroids – a.k.a. Uterine Fibroids or Leiomyomas, are non-cancerous growths that develop in the uterus or around it. The growths most commonly develop during the woman’s reproductive years. They can vary in size.

Fibromyalgia – a chronic (long-term) condition in which patients experience widespread pain in their muscles, ligaments and tendons. It is not curable but treatment can help manage symptoms and lead a productive life.

Flat Feet – also known as Pes Planus or Fallen Arches, is a condition where the feet have low or no arches, causing the soles to fully touch the ground.

Flat Head Syndrome – which can be either Plagiocephaly or Brachycephal, describes babies whose heads have a flat back or side. The phenomenon is caused by lying in the same position for prolonged periods. In most cases (not all), the baby’s head grows normally after they can sit and stand.

Flu – or influenza, is a contagious viral respiratory infection. The majority of people who get flu make a full recovery. However, it can be life-threatening for vulnerable people such as those with a weakened immune system, asthma, or other chronic diseases. Millions of people get it every year.

Folliculitis – sometimes known as Hot Tub Rash or Razor Bumps, refers to the inflammation of the hair follicles, often due to a bacterial or fungal infection.

Food Poisoning – a gastrointestinal (stomach and intestines) infection caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water. It can be cause by a virus, bacterium, parasite, fungus, or toxin.

Frontotemporal Dementia – also known as FTD, is a neurological disorder that affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. The onset of FTD tends to occur in people who are younger than 65 years of age.

Frostbite – or Freezing Cold Injury (FCI) is an unpleasant and potentially dangerous skin condition that develops after exposure to very cold (and cold & windy) temperatures. The most commonly affected areas are the fingers, toes, feet, ears, and nose.

Fungal Infections – conditions caused by various types of fungi that invade the skin, nails, hair, or internal organs. These infections can manifest in a range of symptoms, from itching and redness to more serious complications if left untreated. They are generally treatable with antifungal medications but can be persistent and recurrent if not managed properly.


Gallstones – solid particles that form in the gallbladder. Doctors often say cholelithiasis, which means gallstone disease. The gallbladder is in the upper-right area of the abdomen, which is why some people with gallstones feel pain in that area. Others have no symptoms at all.

Ganglion Cyst – a lump or bump that typically develops near a tendon or joint on the wrist, hand, or finger. It is non-cancerous and is filled with fluid. In most cases, it resolves on its own without treatment. However, some cysts require treatment.

Gastritis – inflammation, irritation, and swelling of the stomach lining. There are many possible causes and multiple signs and symptoms. In most cases, the condition is easily treatable and there are no complications. However, if you leave it untreated, complications are possible.

Gastroenteritis – inflammation of the intestines and stomach. Signs and symptoms include stomach pains, diarrhea, and vomiting. Hundreds of millions of people get it each year across the world.

Gender Dysphoria – distress and unease because your gender identity does not match your biological sex or the sex stated in your birth certificate, i.e., the distress and unease a transgender person may feel.

GERD – which stands for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, is a digestive disorder in which stomach acid or bile flows back (refluxes) into the esophagus, the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. We refer to the discomfort or pain caused by GERD as heartburn.

Gingivitis – inflammation of the gums, usually caused by bacterial plaque buildup. It can also be caused by hormonal changes in women, medications that suppress saliva production, HIV, some cancers, smoking, and diabetes.

Glaucoma – a group of eye conditions causing optic nerve damage, often due to increased eye pressure, leading potentially to irreversible vision loss.

Glue Ear – or otitis media with effusion is a middle-ear infection. The middle ear becomes filled with a thick sticky fluid. The fluid buildup can affect the patient’s hearing.

Golfer’s Elbow – or Medial Epicondylitis is an elbow injury that golfer’s tend to get. However, anybody who takes part in sports or activities that involve repetitive hand, finger, or wrist movements are at risk.

Guillain-Barré Syndrome – or GBS is a rare but serious condition that affects the patient’s nervous system. It is an autoimmune disorder, in which the patient’s own immune system attacks healthy nerve cells.

Gout – a type of arthritis that causes sudden joint pain. The pain is typically severe. The big toe is most commonly affected, followed by other joints in your feet, elbows, wrists, hands, and knees.

Gynecomastia – known informally as Man Boobs, refers to the accumulation of excess breast tissue in men. It is a common condition, especially among adolescent boys and senior males.


Halitosis – see Bad Breath.

Hay Fever – known medically as allergic rhinitis, is a type of allergic reaction to airborne particles such as pollen. Fortunately, there are treatment options today that can help reduce the severity of symptoms.

Hearing Loss – partial or total inability to hear sounds. It may affect just one ear or both and can occur suddenly or gradually. Hearing loss is much more common among seniors than younger age groups.

Heart Disease – a range of conditions affecting the heart’s function, including artery blockages and rhythm disorders.

Heart Palpitations – or Palpitations, are sensations where the patient feels that their heart is beating too fast, too hard, or skipping a beat. Some people perceive it as an irregular heartbeat.

Hemochromatosis – when the body absorbs too much iron from the food we eat, and the levels of iron in the body gradually increase over time (years). If left untreated, complications can be serious, and even deadly.

Hemorrhoids – also known as piles, are swollen veins in the anus and lower rectum. They can cause discomfort and pain, but are not usually a danger to health.

Hepatitis – a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the liver, often caused by viral infections. There are several types, notably Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. It can also result from alcohol abuse, toxins, or autoimmune disease. Symptoms may include jaundice, fatigue, and abdominal pain.

Herpes – an infection which can affect the mouth or genital areas of an infected person, depending on which type of the herpes simplex virus they have – HSV-1 and HSV-2. It is incurable, but medications can help reduce symptoms.

High Blood Pressure – see Hypertension.

High Cholesterol – or hypercholesterolemia is a condition in which a person’s cholesterol blood levels are too high. They are at a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. It is treatable with lifestyle changes and medications.

Hirsutism – unwanted, male-pattern hair growth in women due to high androgen levels.

Hives – or urticaria is a common skin rash that appears itchy, red welts. The rash may vary in size from tiny dots to large patches. It is often the result of an allergic reaction.

HPV –  or the Human Papillomavirus is a type of virus that can affect both men and women. It spreads through direct skin-to-skin contact, which includes sexual activities like vaginal, anal, or oral sex.

Hyperopia – also known as Farsightedness or Long-sightedness, is a common eye disorder in which distant objects are seen clearly, but close ones appear blurry, often due to the eye being as long as it should be.

Hypertension – also known as High Blood Pressure, is a medical condition where the force of the blood against the artery walls is consistently too high. It’s a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular problems.

Hypothyroidism – a condition in which the thyroid gland is not producing enough thyroid hormones. Fortunately, hypothyroidism is treatable. Patients typically need to take synthetic hormones. It is also known as myxoedema or an underactive thyroid.

High Cholesterol – or hypercholesterolemia is a condition in which a person’s cholesterol blood levels are too high. They are at a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. It is treatable with lifestyle changes and medications.

Hypotension – see Low Blood Pressure.


Impetigo – a bacterial skin infection that mainly infects young children, aged from two-to-five years. In most cases the sores appear on the face, but may spread to other parts of the body.

Indigestion – also known as dyspepsia or upset stomach, is a feeling of discomfort, pain, and bloating in the upper abdomen. The patient feels fuller than normal during a meal. That feeling continues long after the meal. It is usually caused by eating too much of the wrong foods, but could also be a sign of an underlying disorder or medical condition.

Infant Jaundice – a.k.a. Neonatal Jaundice, Newborn Jaundice, or Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia, is a relatively common condition in newborn babies, characterized by yellowing of the skin due to excessively high levels of bilirubin.

Influenza – also known as flu, is a contagious, respiratory infection that is caused by the influenza virus. There are 3 types – A, B, and C. It can be dangerous for some vulnerable groups of people.

Ingrown Toenail – or onychocryptosis occurs when the nail of your big toe grows into the skin and cuts through. In most cases, it resolves on its own or with some home remedies. However, it can become extremely painful and infected (requiring professional medical attention). If left untreated, complications such as a bone infection or foot ulcer are possible.

Insomnia – a sleep disorder in which the patient finds it very hard to fall asleep, stay asleep, or both. Millions of people suffer from insomnia worldwide. Fortunately, there are measures we can take to overcome it.

Intermittent Explosive Disorder – or IED is a behavioral disorder characterized by recurrent, sudden episodes of impulsive, aggressive behaviour.

Intracranial Hypertension – also known as IH, is a neurological disorder that occurs when there is too much pressure inside the skull. It is a serious condition that needs immediate medical attention. It used to be called pseudotumor cerebri (PTC).

Iritis – also known as Anterior Uveitis, refers to inflammation of the iris (the colored part of the eye that surrounds the pupil).

Irritable Bowel Syndrome – also known as IBS, is a common condition that affects the digestive system. Patients experience bloating, stomach cramps, gas, diarrhea, and constipation. It is a chronic (long-term) condition.


Jaundice – a condition in which the whites of the eyes, skin, tongue, and mucus membrane go yellow in color. When it occurs in newborns, we call it neonatal jaundice.

Japanese Encephalitis – or JE is a mosquito-borne viral infection that affects the human brain and central nervous system. It is common in Southeast Asia, especially in its rural areas, as well as the Pacific Islands.

Jet Lag – also known as zone change syndrome and desynchronosis, occurs when your normal sleep pattern is disturbed. It is most commonly caused by flying across several time zones.

Joint Pain – also known as arthralgia, refers to discomfort and soreness in the joints. There are many types. The human body has 360 joints. Examples of joint pain include knee pain, neck pain, wrist pain, and hip pain.

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis – or JIA is a kind of arthritis that affects children (aged 16 or less). Before 1995, the term was juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Symptoms include pain, swelling, and inflammation in one or more joints.


Kaposi’s Sarcoma – a cancer causing brown or purple lesions/marks on the skin and internal organs. It is often linked to weakened immune systems. We can write it as Kaposi’s Sarcoma or Kaposi Sarcoma.

Kawasaki Disease – a condition that typically affects very young children and babies. The disease causes inflammation of the walls of blood vessels, including the coronary arteries, which supply the heart with blood. The condition is also known as Kawasaki syndrome or mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome.

Keloid Scars – also known as Keloidal Scars or Keloid Disorders, are raised scars on the skin. They grow after a skin injury, such as a cut, has healed. Often, they end up much bigger than the original injury.

Keratitis – inflammation of the cornea (part of the eye). Keratitis can cause eye redness, light sensitivity, eyelid inflammation, pain, and a gritty sensation in the eye. The condition is treatable.

Keratoconus – an eye condition in which the cornea thins and bulges into a cone-like shape. People with this condition may be very sensitive to light and glare and have blurred vision.

Kernicterus – a severe form of brain damage in newborns caused by excessive bilirubin, leading to irreversible neurological disorders, hearing loss, and developmental disabilities.

Kidney Cancer – a type of malignancy that begins in the kidneys, two bean-shaped organs responsible for filtering waste from the blood. Risk factors include smoking, obesity, and high blood pressure.

Kidney Infection – or Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection that affects either one or both kidneys. In most cases, it is caused by E. coli, a bacterium that exists in the gut (intestines).

Kidney Stones – small, hard crystals that form within the kidneys. They are made of deposits of salts and minerals. Some kidney stones can be as big as golf balls.

Kleptomania – a mental health disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to steal items, often without personal need or monetary value. The condition typically begins in adolescence and can lead to significant personal, legal, and emotional difficulties. Treatment often involves a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy, medications, and support groups.

Klinefelter Syndrome – a genetic disorder in which a male is born with an extra copy of the female X chromosome (47, XXY). Most people with this syndrome are diagnosed after childhood.

Knee Pain – as the term suggests, it refers to discomfort, aching, pain, or soreness in or around the knee. Although it can be found in all age groups, it is much more common among older adults.

Knee Replacement – or Knee Arthroplasty is the surgical replacement of a damaged/injured/faulty knee with an artificial one (prosthesis) made of metal and plastic. Either part of the knee is replaced or all of it. It is a straightforward procedure today. Full recovery can take up to 1 year.


Lactose Intolerance – or lactose malabsorption; the inability to fully digest the sugar in milk (lactose) and dairy products.

Laryngitis – inflammation of the larynx. The larynx is also called the voice box. Patients may have a hoarse voice. Some lose their voice completely. The condition typically resolves on its own within a couple of weeks.

Lazy Eye – or Amblyopia is a condition in which one of the eyes does not develop as well or fast as the other. If left untreated, the ‘lazy’ eye could eventually lose all vision, i.e., the person would be blind in one eye.

Legionnaires’ Disease – a severe type of pneumonia caused by Legionella bacteria. It is uncommon but can infect humans if they inhale the bacterium from water or soil. Infrequently used faucets, showers, and badly maintained air conditioning systems are potential sources of the bacteria.

Leptospirosis – also known as Rat Fever or Weil’s Disease, is an infectious disease humans can get when exposed to animals’ urine, or contaminated soil and water. It is caused by Leptospira bacteria. If not treated promptly, complications can become life-threatening.

Lesion – A lesion refers to an area of abnormal tissue that has been damaged or has undergone a change in its structure or function. Lesions can occur in different parts of the body and can be caused by various factors such as injury, disease, or infection. The severity of the lesion depends on its location and underlying cause. Diagnosis and treatment of lesions vary depending on the type and severity of the lesion.

Leukemia – a group of cancers that affect the patient’s bone marrow and blood, disrupting the production of healthy blood cells. Without adequate treatment, leukemia is fatal.

Lice – small, wingless insects that infest human hair, feeding on blood. They spread through close contact and are not a sign of poor hygiene or cleanliness.

Lipoma – a benign fatty growth that forms between the skin and underlying muscle layer. Most are under 2 inches wide, but some can exceed 6 inches in diameter.

Long-Sightedness – see Farsightedness (Hyperopia).

Low Blood Pressure – also known as Hypotension, is a condition characterized by blood pressure levels that are lower than the normal range, which can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, or, in extreme cases, shock.

Lyme Disease – a bacterial infection that is transmitted by a tick, usually when it is still in its nymph stage. The tick is infected with a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi.

Lupus – also known as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE, is a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect many of the body’s organs. Although there is no cure, treatment can help patients control their symptoms and lead active and productive lives.

Lymphatic Filariasis – a parasitic infection causing severe swelling and disfigurement of limbs, often leading to social stigma.


Macular Degeneration – a.k.a. Age-Related Macular Degeneration or AMD, is a progressive eye condition that affects central vision and deteriorates the retina’s functionality over time.

Major Depressive Disorder – or MDD, is a serious mental health condition that can impact a person’s emotions, thoughts, daily life, and quality of life.

Malaria – an infectious disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. Although it is preventable and curable, it is still a major public health problem and killer in many parts of the world.

Maple Syrup Urine Disease – or MSUD is a serious genetic and metabolic disorder. This rare disorder affects the body’s ability to break down some of the amino acids found in protein. A telltale sign is the patient’s sweet-smelling urine, like maple syrup, hence the name.

Marburg Virus Disease – or MVD is a severe hemorrhagic viral fever that is caused by the Marburg virus. The virus, which is related to the Ebola virus, has an average fatality rate of 50%. It was first detected in Marburg in Germany in 1967.

Marfan Syndrome – a genetic disorder that affects the body’s connective tissue. It can affect various parts of the body.

Mastoiditis – a serious infection of the bony air cells in the mastoid bone. Children are more commonly infected than adults. The mastoid bone is behind the ear.

Measles – also known as Morbilli, Rubeola, and Red Measles, is a highly contagious viral disease that used to kill millions of children globally every year until a vaccine was created fifty years ago. Most people today are vaccinated against measles.

Medical Device – A medical device is an instrument, apparatus, machine, implant, or other similar article that is intended for use in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of a disease or medical condition. Medical devices range from simple tools such as stethoscopes and thermometers to more complex devices such as pacemakers, artificial joints, and imaging machines. They must meet strict regulatory requirements to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Melanoma – a potentially deadly form of skin cancer that originates in the melanocytes, the cells responsible for producing melanin, the pigment that colors our skin, hair, and eyes.

Meningitis – occurs when the meninges – the protective membranes that cover the spinal cord and brain – become infected and inflamed. Meningitis is life-threatening and requires urgent treatment.

Mental Health – a crucial part of human health. It includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. Our mental health affects how we feel, act, and think.

MERS – which stands for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, is a viral respiratory illness caused by the MERS-CoV virus, characterized by fever, cough, and breathing difficulties, and primarily found in the Middle East.

Metabolic Syndrome – a cluster of conditions that occur simultaneously and increase the risk of stroke, diabetes type 2, and heart disease. If you have metabolic syndrome, you have at least three of the following criteria: high blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around your waist, abnormal triglyceride levels, and abnormal cholesterol levels.

Migraine – a type of headache in which the sufferer experiences intense (throbbing) pain, often on one said of the head, but also both sides is possible. Many also experience visual disturbances (auras).

Moles – also known as Nevi (singular Nevus), are small, dark growths on the skin that are caused by clustered melanocytes (pigment cells). Nearly everybody has them and they are mostly nothing to worry about. However, some have the potential to become cancerous.

Monkeypox – or Mpox is a rare, infectious disease caused by the Monkeypox Virus. Infected people develop lesions on their skin and also experience headaches, muscular pains, and exhaustion.

Mono (mononucleosis) – a viral infection that causes extreme fatigue, sore throat, swollen glands, and fever. It is usually caused by EBV (the Epstein-Barr virus). It can last a few weeks or even months. Also called glandular fever or the kissing disease.

Motion Sickness – also known as seasickness, car sickness, air sickness, and travel sickness. It is a condition many people have when traveling by car, train, plane, and ship. They feel dizzy, uneasy, nauseous, and generally unwell. Some people vomit.

Multiple Sclerosis – or MS is a chronic autoimmune disease that targets the central nervous system, disrupting communication between the brain and the body by damaging the protective myelin sheath on nerve fibers.

Myopia – also known as Nearsightedness or Short-Sightedness, is an eye condition causing blurry distance vision due to light focusing in front of the retina.


Nail Fungus – also known as Onychomycosis, is a common fungal infection that affects the fingernails or toenails. It often begins as a white or yellow spot under the tip of the nail and gradually spreads, leading to discoloration, thickening, and crumbling of the nail. Left untreated, it can cause pain and potentially lead to more serious complications.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder – sometimes referred to as simply Narcissism, is a mental condition marked by excessive self-importance, limited empathy (or none at all), and a constant need for admiration.

Narcolepsy – a chronic, neurological disorder that affects the patient’s brain’s ability to sleep and be awake at the right times. Sufferers can suddenly and unwillingly fall asleep during the daytime. They may also wake up at night often, also unwillingly.

Nasal Polyps – benign swellings (non-cancerous growths) in the nasal and sinus passages. They look like hanging drops of water or peeled grapes. In some patients, there may be complications.

Neck Pain – or Cervicalgia refers to discomfort, aches, or pain in the cervical region (neck region), which is the top seven vertebrae of the spinal column. Neck pain may be chronic (long-term) or acute (short term).

Neonatal Jaundice – look up Infant Jaundice.

Neuropathy – a nerve problem that causes tingling, numbness, pins and needles, and muscle weakness in the arms, legs, hands, feet, and different parts of the body. It is a common complication of diabetes.

Nephritis – or glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys that can affect how they function. It may be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, exposure to harmful substances (nephrotoxins), certain medications, or autoimmune disease.

Nevi – look up Moles.

Nickel Allergy – as the name suggests, the term refers to an allergy to the metal nickel. A common reaction is allergic dermatitis, i.e., skin inflammation, rash, blisters and bumps, itching, and a burning sensation.

Non-Allergic Rhinitis – symptoms include a runny/blocked nose, sneezing, and post-nasal drip. Although the symptoms are similar to those of hay fever (allergic rhinitis), it is not caused by an allergy. Possible causes include a bad cold, exercise, weather changes, and some medications.

Norovirus – also known the winter vomiting bug, stomach flu, or stomach bug, is a contagious virus that infects the intestines and stomach. It causes stomach pains, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and sometimes a fever and headache. It is common worldwide.

NSAIDs – or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used to treat inflammation, pain, and fever. They are among the most widely used medications in the world.


Obesity – refers to the excessive build-up of fat in the body that may represent a risk to health. An obese person has a BMI of thirty or more. Obesity is today a global public health problem.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder – or OCD is a disorder in which people have recurring, unwanted ideas, thoughts, sensations, and behaviors. It may affect adult men, women, as well as children. It can negatively affect people’s quality of life.

Occupational therapy – is all about getting people who are physically or cognitively challenged to function successfully at home, at work, socially, and in their general environment. In other words, help them gain or regain their independence. Clients may have, for example, become disabled and need to learn how to do things that were once second nature to them.

Onychomycosis – see Nail Fungus.

Orf – a skin infection that humans can get from infected sheep and goats.

Osteoarthritis – or OA is a disease of the joints, caused when the protective cartilage, the one that cushions the ends of your bones, wears down over time. It can cause stiffness, pain, and limited motion of the affected joint. It affects mainly the fingers, hips, knees, lower back, and neck.

Osteomyelitis – a bone inflammation caused by a bone infection that can be extremely painful. It is treatable. Most of the infections are bacterial, but some may be fungal.

Osteoporosis – the loss of bone density and strength. The bones are much more likely to fracture, patients can lose height, and end up with a stoop.

OTC Drugs – or over-the-counter medications are medications that we can buy without a doctor’s prescription. Normal-dose aspirin or acetaminophen (Tylenol/Paracetamol) can be bought over the counter without a prescription. They are OTC drugs.


Paget’s Disease of the Bone – a disease in which the body’s normal process of breaking down old bone and creating new bone is disrupted. It is a chronic (long-lasting) disease. Bones become brittle and often deformed.

Panic Disorder – a type of anxiety disorder in which the sufferer has sudden attacks of dread, worry, fear, and extreme anxiety, i.e., panic attacks. However, there is no danger or apparent cause. The attacks also trigger physical reactions.

Parkinson’s Disease – or PD is a progressive neurological disease, i.e., symptoms get worse with time. The disorder principally affects how the patient moves, but also undermines their cognitive abilities. Patients with PD have a much lower dopamine level in the brain than average.

Patau’s Syndrome – also known as Trisomy 13, is a genetic condition in which the person has an extra 13th chromosome. People with this condition tend not to survive for more than a year, although some may reach adolescence or early adulthood.

Peripheral Artery Disease – also known as Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD), or Peripheral Vascular Disease, is a condition in which the arms or legs (usually legs) receive less blood than they should because of narrowed arteries. It is a common condition among people aged 65+.

Personal Assistant – a dedicated professional who manages administrative tasks, schedules, and personal duties, ensuring smooth operations for executives or individuals, facilitating efficiency and organization.

Physical Therapy – or physiotherapy in the UK, focuses on helping people recover and gain strength and flexibility after an injury, illness, or the result of a chronic condition. The professional specialized in this field is called a physical therapist, or physiotherapist in the UK.

Pink Eye – also known as conjunctivitis. It is an inflammation of the surface of the eye and underside of the eyelid. We call it pink eye because the infected person’s eye goes red/pink.

Pneumonia – a lung infection that can be caused by a virus, bacterium, or fungus. Symptoms may be mild to severe, even life-threatening. People with weak immune systems, some chronic diseases, seniors, and infants are at risk of serious complications.

Polio (Poliomyelitis) – a highly infectious viral disease that can cause paralysis. In severe cases, the disease can be fatal. It was much more common in most parts of the world before a vaccine was created.

Prader-Willi Syndrome – or PWS is a rare genetic condition characterized by learning difficulties, a wide range of physical symptoms, behavioral changes, excessive hunger, low muscle tone, and growth hormone deficiency. Obesity is more common among people with PWS than it is in the rest of the population.

Probiotics – bacteria and yeasts that exist in our bodies and are good for us, especially our intestines (gut). We can obtain them from the food we eat and also in the form of dietary supplements.

Prosopagnosia – also known as Face Blindness and Facial Agnosia, is a neurological condition in which the person finds it hard or impossible to recognize faces. Actor Brad Pitt says he has it.

Pseudobulbar Affect – a neurological condition causing sudden, uncontrollable emotional outbursts often unrelated to one’s feelings.

Psoriasis – an autoimmune skin condition in which the body produces new skin cells too fast. Thick, red scaly patches build up on the skin. The condition can be extremely uncomfortable and painful. However, there is treatment that can help reduce symptoms.

Psychosis – a mental condition that affects how we think, perceive reality, and feel. Patients may experience hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thoughts, or a combination.

PTSD – which stands for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, is a mental health illness that people get after experiencing or witnessing something shocking, horrific, or traumatic, such as torture, war scenes, a natural disaster, or an awful death.


Q Fever – also known as Query Fever, is a bacterial infection that is transmitted to humans from animals, i.e., it is a zoonotic infection. It primarily affects farm animals and pets. Infected humans may experience a high fever, severe headache, and muscle aches, but most of them are asymptomatic (have no signs or symptoms).

Quetiapine – brand name Seroquel, is an atypical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. It has been on the market since 1997.

Quinsy – also known as a peritonsillar abscess, is a pus-filled abscess that forms around the area of the tonsils. It is a potentially serious complication of tonsillitis.


Rabies – a virus infection that mammals can pass onto humans, typically by biting them. If left untreated, nearly all cases of rabies are fatal. Most human cases come from dog bites.

Ramsay Hunt Syndrome – patients suffer from facial paralysis and a painful rash in and around one ear. This occurs when a shingles outbreak affects one of their facial nerves – specifically, near one of their ears.

Raynaud’s Phenomenon – a.k.a. Raynaud’s Disease or Raynaud’s Syndrome, is a condition in which the person’s blood vessels in their fingers and toes constrict (narrow) when exposed to cold temperatures. Emotional stress is also a possible trigger. The affected areas may include the tips of the ears, nipples, and knees.

Reactive Arthritis – formerly known as Reiter’s Syndrome, is an inflammatory form of arthritis that is caused by a recent infection such as an STI (sexually transmitted infection) or gastrointestinal infection. It usually goes away within a year.

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder – or RBD is a sleep condition or disorder in which the patient acts out their dreams while sleeping. They may kick, punch, or scream unknowingly.

Repetitive Strain Injury – or RSI is an injury resulting from repetitive movements while working, practicing sports, playing a musical instrument, or doing something about the house. It is also known as overuse injury, work-related musculoskeletal disorder, cumulative trauma disorder, and repetitive motion injury.

Respiratory Tract Infections – or RTIs are infections of the lungs, throat, airways, nose, and sinuses. They are usually viral infections but may also be bacterial. Lower respiratory infections are more serious than those affecting the upper respiratory tract.

Restless Leg Syndrome – or Willis-Ekbom Disease refers to a condition in which the patient has an uncontrollable and irresistible urge to move their legs. It is an unpleasant sensation and can often cause sleep disturbance or insomnia.

Rett Syndrome – a genetic disorder that affects the brain, causing severe mental and physical disability. It is very rare and affects girls more than boys.

Reye’s Syndrome – or Reye Syndrome is a very rare disease that causes swelling in the brain and liver. Only 20 people get it each year in the US. It affects children and teens mainly and should be treated as a medical emergency. If left untreated, the patient may die.

Rheumatoid Arthritis – or RA is a chronic autoimmune disease that primarily affects joints, leading to inflammation, pain, stiffness, and over time, potential joint deformity and disability.

Ringworm – known medically as Dermatophytosis or Tinea, is a common fungal skin infection caused by dermatophytes, a type of fungus that thrives on the outer layers of skin, hair, and nails. Contrary to its name, ringworm doesn’t involve a worm; the name comes from the characteristic circular, ring-like rash that often appears on the skin. This condition can manifest in various forms, affecting different areas of the body such as the feet, groin, scalp, and torso. It is usually characterized by itching, redness, and a scaly rash. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications.

Rosacea – a chronic skin condition characterized by facial redness, visible blood vessels, and sometimes pus-filled bumps. It often affects individuals between the ages of 30 and 60 and is more common in those of northern European descent. The exact cause remains unknown, but various triggers like spicy foods and temperature extremes can exacerbate symptoms.

Rotavirus – a contagious viral illness causing severe diarrhea and vomiting in children. The term Rotavirus may either refer to the virus or an infection with the virus.


Salmonella – a genus of bacteria that is often the cause of human gastrointestinal infections and food poisoning. There are preventive measure we can take to reduce the risk of infection. Salmonella infection is called Salmonellosis.

Scabies – a contagious skin infection caused by the microscopic mite Sarcoptes scabiei, resulting in intense itching and rash due to the mite’s burrowing and laying eggs.

Schizophrenia – a chronic and severe mental illness/condition that significantly affects people’s perception of reality. It also affects their behavior, emotions, and thoughts.

Scoliosis – a condition in which the spine twists and forms a ‘C’ or ‘S’ shape. If somebody has severe scoliosis, their spine is visibly twisted and they probably have uneven shoulders and/or hips.

Seasonal Affective Disorder – or SAD is a type of clinical depression that affects people at certain times of the year, i.e., mainly during the less sunny seasons, hence the name. Most SAD sufferers experience depressive symptoms in the fall and winter. A small percentage, however, get SAD just during the sunnier months.

Separation Anxiety Disorder – or SAD, occurs when an individual experiences intense distress due to actual or anticipated separation from a loved one. The condition is labeled as SAD when it reaches a level that significantly impacts daily activities and functioning.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) – or Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are infections spread primarily through sexual contact, affecting both men and women, often causing significant health complications if left untreated.

Shingles – also known as herpes zoster, is a viral infection cause by varicella-zoster, the virus which also causes chickenpox. People who’ve had chickenpox are at risk of developing shingles later in life.

Sickle Cell Disease – often just referred to as Sickle Cell, is a lifelong, inherited genetic disorder. It leads to the production of abnormally shaped, less flexible red blood cells, resembling a farm tool known as a ‘sickle.’ This results in various health complications, including episodes of pain, anemia, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Signs & Symptoms – signs are things that both the patient and doctor can detect, sense or observe, such as a skin rash or swollen finger. A symptom is something only the patient can sense or detect, such as a headache or blurred vision.

Sinusitis – a.k.a. Sinus Infection, is the inflammation of the tissue lining the sinuses. Often caused by viral or bacterial infections, it can lead to symptoms like nasal congestion, pain, and discolored nasal discharge.

Sleep Paralysis – the inability  to move or speak when you are conscious. It most commonly happens when a person wakes in bed up but cannot move. It does not last long and is not dangerous.

Steroids – hormones that occur naturally in the body. Testosterone, for example, is a steroid. Artifical steroids are called anabolic steroids. The article also covers steroid abuse.

Stomach Ulcer – a sore in the stomach lining caused by reduced protective mucus and excess stomach acid.

Strep Throat – a bacterial infection that typically causes a sore throat. Some patients also have a fever, swollen glands, and difficulties swallowing. It is also known as streptococcal pharyngitis.

Stroke – occurs when a blood vessel in the brain either bursts or gets blocked. In both cases, brain cells are starved of oxygen and die. It is a serious and potentially deadly condition.

Sunburn – the result of spending too long exposing your skin to direct sunlight or being in a tanning bed. Sunburn can be extremely painful. It is bad for the skin. Repeated sunburn raises your risk of premature wrinkling and skin cancer.

Swimmer’s Ear – or Otitis Externa is an infection of the ear, from the eardrum to the outer opening, i.e., the outer ear canal. It is much more common in children than in adults.

Syphilis – sexually transmitted bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum. If left untreated, it can progress through multiple stages, leading to severe health complications, including damage to the heart and nervous system. Additionally, the infection can be passed from mother to child during childbirth, a condition known as congenital syphilis.


Tachycardia – a condition where the heart rate exceeds the normal resting rate, typically over 100 beats per minute.

Temporomandibular Disorder – or TMD is a group of disorders that affect the TMJ (temporomandibular joint) – the joint that connects the jaw with the skull. Without the TMJ, we would not be able to talk, chew, or yawn.

Tendonitis – or tendinitis is irritation or inflammation of the tendon. It is typically cause by overuse from repetitive movements or too much weight/pressure. We are more prone to tendonitis as we get older.

Tennis Elbow – or Lateral Epicondylitis is a condition in which the tendons of an elbow are overused, so much so that they become overloaded. This painful condition is mainly caused by repetitive motions of an arm and the joints of that arm (wrist and elbow).

Tension Headaches – or Tension-Type Headaches (TTH) are the most common type of headache we can experience. Apart from pain, the sufferer also feels as if there is a tight band around their head.

Thirst – a sensation of craving for water. When we are dehydrated we experience thirst, we are thirsty. It is the body’s natural response to dehydration. It is a survival response.

Tics – sudden and repetitive movements or sounds a person makes unexpectedly and uncontrollably. It was not their intention to make that movement or sound (or those movements or sounds). Examples include lip smacks, grimaces, eyebrow raises, fast head turns/jerks, grunting, or barking.

Tinnitus – also referred to as ringing in the ears, is a temporary or chronic condition in which the person hears ringing, hissing, humming, whooshing, or buzzing sounds, but there is no external source.

Tonsillitis – infection/inflammation of the tonsils. The infections may be bacterial or viral. When it is a virus, symptoms tend to be milder.

Tuberculosis – or TB is an infectious disease primarily affecting the lungs. Caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is transmitted through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or speaks.


Ulcerative Colitis – or UC is a chronic (long-term) inflammatory bowel disease that affects the inner lining of the rectum and colon. It leads to ulcers in the digestive tract, pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.

Urethritis – inflammation of the urether, the tube that passes urine from the bladder to outside the body. Patients typically have a painful/burning sensation when urinating. It is most commonly the result of a bacterial infection.

Urinary Incontinence – describes a condition in which the patient has lost bladder control. They urinate involuntarily, in other words, they pee unintentionally. It affects millions of people across the world.

Urinary Tract Infection – also known as UTI, is an infection somewhere in the urinary system, such as the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra.

Uterine Fibroids – a.k.a. myomas or leiomyomas, are growths that develop on the walls of the uterus. They affect women of reproductive age. Some are as small as a pea whole others may be larger than a grapefruit.

Uveitis – inflammation of the middle layer of the eye – the uvea. It can cause serious vision problems if left untreated.


Varicose Veins – enlarged veins, usually in the legs, which have become bumpy, lumpy, bulging and twisted. They may be blue or purple in color. They are due to poor blood flow and faulty valves in the veins.

Vascular Dementia – a type of dementia that is caused by a lack of blood (oxygen) reaching a part of the brain. It is most commonly caused by a stroke.

Ventilator – a ventilator is a medical device that helps a patient breathe by providing oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from their lungs. It delivers oxygen through a tube that is inserted into the patient’s mouth, nose, or trachea, and uses positive pressure to inflate the lungs. Ventilators are used to treat a variety of conditions that affect breathing, such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Vertigo – a sensation of spinning, dizziness, and loss of balance, but the ground is still and nothing is moving. It is quite a common condition. It does not mean ‘fear of heights,’ even though many people (mistakenly) use it with that meaning.

Vitamins – organic compounds that our bodies need. Although we only require small quantities of vitamins, they are crucial for various biological functions and our physical and mental health.

Vitiligo – a skin disorder characterized by the loss of melanin, resulting in irregular white patches on the skin and sometimes affecting hair and mucous membranes.

Von Willebrand Disease – a genetic bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency or dysfunction of von Willebrand factor, a protein essential for blood clotting.


Warts – small growths that develop on the skin. They are caused by HPV (human papillomavirus). Those that grow on the soles of the feet are called Plantar Warts (British: Verrucas).

West Nile Virus – or WNV is a virus that belongs to the same family as the dengue fever, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. Humans become infected when they are bitten by an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected if they bite an infected bird.

Whiplash – also known as neck strain or neck sprain, occurs when your head is forcefully pushed backward and then forward (or vice-versa) at high speed. This injury may happen after a car accident, a fall, or when playing contact sports.

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome – or WPW Syndrome is a relatively common heart condition that causes the heart to sometimes beat too fast. Some people are born with an abnormal electrical pathway in their heart which leads to periods of rapid heart rates (tachycardia).

Whooping Cough – also called pertussis, is a respiratory infection caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is extremely contagious and mainly (but not exclusively) affects young children. Prevention is via vaccination.

Wrist pain – as the name suggests, pain in the wrist; and also the surrounding area. There are many possible causes. The wrist has several small bones, nerves, two arteries, joints, ligaments, muscles, and tendons. The possibilities for injury and pain are numerous.


Xerosis – also known as xeroderma, xerosis cutis, or dry skin is a condition in which the patient’s skin is unable to retain moisture properly. Their skin becomes rough, flaky, and often itchy.

Xerostomia – or dry mouth is a condition in which the patient’s salivary glands are not producing enough saliva. Saliva is spit. Saliva is crucial for many functions, such as facilitating speech, digestion, and swallowing.

X-Rays – medical imaging tests that allow us to look inside the body without the need for surgery. X-rays are used to help doctors diagnose fractures, lesions, tumors, and other medical phenomena.


Yawn Reflex – a universal experience that occurs when we are sleepy, bored, or mimicking another person who is yawning. Humans, mammals, some reptiles, and birds do it. Even fishes yawn.

Yeast Infection – Yeast infections are caused by too much of a certain type of fungus called Candida albicans. There are many different signs and symptoms. These can include itching, burning, pain, soreness, discharge and a rash – depending on where the infection is located.

Yellow Fever – a serious and potentially life-threatening illness caused by the yellow fever virus. The virus is transmitted to humans via mosquito bites. The virus belongs to the same family as the Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and West Nile viruses.

Yersiniosis – a bacterial infection that affects the intestinal tract and is usually caused by eating contaminated pork, other meats, and dairy products. Most cases resolve without the need for medical intervention.


Zika Virus Disease – a mosquito-borne illness. If you get bitten by an infected mosquito, it will transmit the Zika virus to you and you may get ill with Zika virus disease. Pregnant mothers can pass the infection to their babies or fetuses, who may suffer physical abnormalities.

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome – also known as Z-E syndrome or ZES, is a rare disorder in which gastrinomas (tumors) form in the upper part of the small intestine and pancreas. The tumors produce too much gastrin, which in turn make the stomach produce excess acid, which can lead to ulcers and other gastrointestinal problems.

Zoonotic Diseases – also known as zoonoses, are diseases that are transmitted to humans from animals. Rabies and bird flu (avian influenza) are two examples.